Definition and Fundamental concept; Properties contributing to Rheological behavior; Graphic presentation of Rheological data.

Physicochemical Processes

  1. Precipitation: Process of precipitation and its applications in Pharmacy.
  2. Crystallization: Types of crystals, Mechanism and methods of crystallization and its applications in Pharmacy.
  3. Distillation: Simple distillation, fractional distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, destructive distillation and their applications in Pharmacy.
  4. Miscellaneous Processes: Efflorescence, deliquescence, lyophillization, elutrition, exiccation, ignition, sublimation, fusion, calcination, adsorption, decantation, evaporation, vaporization, centrifugation, dessication, levigation and trituration.

Extraction Processes

  • Maceration: Purpose & process.
  • Percolation: Purpose and Process.
  • Liquid-Liquid extraction: Purpose and Process.
  • Large scale extraction: Purpose and Process

Rate And Order Of Reactions

Rate And Order Of Reactions

Kinetic Principles And Stability Testing: Theoretic Considerations: Degradation

  1. Physical Factors: Influence of pH, temperature, ionic strength, acid-base catalysis, U.V. light.
  2. Chemical Factors: Complex chemical reactions, Oxidation-reduction reactions, Hydrolysis.

Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g.

  1. Partition-coefficient, surface tension, viscosity.
  2. Experiments to demonstrate some of physico-chemical processes like simple distillation, steam distillation, crystallization, dialysis.