Pharmaceutical Calculations

Some Fundamentals of Measurements and Calculations. The Metric System. The Common Systems. Conversions. Calculation of Doses. Percentage calculations, Reducing and Enlarging Formulas. Weights and Volumes of Liquids. HLB Values. Industrial Calculations. Calculations involving parenteral admixtures. Some calculations involving Hydrogen-ion concentration. Calculations involving isotonic, electrolyte and buffer solutions.


Dosage form, Ingredient, Product formulation.

Galenical Preparations

Infusions, Decoctions, Extracts, Fluid extracts, Tinctures, Aromatic waters.

Solvents Used In Pharmaceutical Preparations

Solvents Used In Pharmaceutical Preparations

Oral Solutions, Syrups, Elixirs And Spirits

Solutions: their preparation, dry mixtures for solution, oral rehydrate solutions, oral colonic lavage solution. Syrup: components and preparation of syrups. Elixirs: Preparation of elixirs, Medicated and non-Medicated elixirs. Spirits: Preparation of Spirits.

Oral Suspensions, Emulsions, Magma And Gels

Preparations, examples and importance

Topical And Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

Introduction of Ointments, Creams, Pastes, Poultice, Plasters, Lotions, Liniments, Topical gels, Topical Tinctures, Collodions, Topical solutions, Topical powders, Percutaneous absorption, Transdermal systems in use

Ophthalmic, Nasal And Otic Preparations

Ophthalmic solutions, suspensions, ointment, inserts, contact lens solutions. Nasal decongestant solutions, Decongestant inhalers. Ear preparations: Anti-infective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic


Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g. Preparation of simple syrup, Orange syrup, Ferrous sulphate syrup, Cod Liver oil Emulsion, Liquid paraffin Emulsion, Throat paint (Mandle’s paint), Boroglycerine glycerite, Tannic acid glycerin, Spirit ammonia aromatic, Spirit of Ethyl Nitrite. Preparation of Methyl salicylate ointment, Sulphur ointment, Calamine lotion, Iodine tincture, Preparations of oral hygiene products, Poultice of Kaolin, Effervescent granules, Distilled Water for Injections (A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).