Mass Transfer

Mass Transfer

Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer


Theories of drying, Drying of Solids, Classification of dryers, General Methods, Fluidized Bed systems, Pneumatic systems, Spray dryer, Freeze dying

Communition (Size Reduction)

Reasons for size reduction, Factors affecting size reduction, size analysis, Sieving, Energy Mills (Ball Mill, Endrumer, Edge Rumer, Disintegrant, Colloid Mill, Hammer Mill, Cutter Mill and Fluid Energy Mill etc).


Fundamentals, Mechanisms, Mixing Equipment used in Liquid/Liquid, Liquid/Solid and Solid/Solid mixing

Clarification And Filtration

Theory, Filter Media, Filter aids, Filter selection and Equipment (Leaf filter, Filter press, Melta filters and Rotary filters).


General principles of Evaporation, Evaporators and Evaporation under reduced pressure.

Compression And Compaction

The solid-air Interface, Angle of Repose, Flow rates, Mass volume relationship, Density, Heckel Plots, Consolidation, Granulation, Friability, Compression (dry method, wet method, slugging), Physics of Tabletting, tabletting machines and other equipment required, problems involved in tabletting, tablet coating. Capsulation: Hard and soft gelatin capsules.


Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Manufacture of Tablets by Wet Granulation Method, by Slugging and by Direct Compression. Coating of Tablets (Sugar Coating, Film coating and Enteric Coating). Clarification of liquids by various processes. Size Reduction. Homogenization. Ampoule filling, sealing and sterilization clarity and leakage tests in injectables. Capsule filling by semi automatic machines. Manufacture of sustained action drugs. Tablets Tests like Disintegration. Dissolution. Friability. Hardness and Thickness tests. Determination of weight variation in tablets. Density of powder. Particle size analysis. (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).