Course objective

After the completion of this course the students should be able to describe all the basic physiological processes which are the basis of pathophysiology of various diseases and their ultimate link with pharmacology for their treatment.

Basic Cell Functions

  1. Chemical composition of the body: Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Free Radicals, Polar Molecules, Solutions, Classes of Organic Molecules
  2. Cell structure: Microscopic Observation of Cell, Microscopic, Cell Organelles, Cytoskeleton.
  3. Protein activity and cellular metabolism: Binding Site Characteristics, Regulation of Binding site Characteristics, Chemical Reactions, Enzymes, Regulation of Enzyme Mediated Reactions, Multienzyme metabolic Pathways, ATP, Cellular Energy Transfer, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism, Essential Nutrients.
  4. Genetic information and Protein Synthesis: Genetic Code, Protein Synthesis, Protein, Degradation, Protein Secretion, Replication and Expression of Genetic Information, Cancer, Genetic Engineering.
  5. Movement of Molecules across Cell Membranes: Diffusion, Mediated Transport Systems, Osmosis, Endocytosis and Exocytosis, Epithelial Transport

Biological Control System

  1. Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication: General Characteristics, Components of Homeostatic Control Systems, Intercellular Chemical Messengers, Processes Related to Homeostasis, Receptors, Single Transduction Pathways.
  2. Neural Control Mechanisms: Structure and Maintenance of Neurons, Functional Classes of Neurons, Glial Cells, Neural Growth and Regeneration, Basic Principles of Electricity, The resting Membrane Potential, Graded Potentials and Action Potentials, Functional Anatomy of synapses, Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell, Synaptic Effectiveness, Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators, Neuro effector communication, Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord Central Nervous System: Brain, Peripheral Nervous System, Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier Phenomenon, and Cerebrospinal fluid.
  3. The Sensory Systems: Receptors, Neural Pathways in Sensory System, Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing, Primary Sensory Coding, Somatic Sensation, Visio, Hearing, Vestibular System, Chemical Senses.
  4. Principles of Hormonal Control Systems: Hormone Structures and Synthesis, Hormone Transport in the Blood, Hormone Metabolism and Excretion, Mechanisms of Hormone Action, Inputs that control Hormone Secretion, Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary, candidate Hormones, types of Endocrine Disorders.
  5. Muscle: Structure, Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction, Mechanics of Single fiber Contraction, Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism, Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers, Whole Muscle Contraction, Structure, Contraction and its Control.
  6. Control of Body Movement: Motor Control Hierarchy, Local control of Motor Neurons, The Brain Motor Centers and the Descending Pathways they Control, Muscle Tone, Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance, Walking.
  7. Consciousness and Behavior: State of consciousness, conscious Experiences, Motivation and Emotion, Altered State of Consciousness, Learning and Memory, Cerebral Dominance and language Conclusion.


Special emphasis should be given on the normal physiological values and their changes during respective pathological conditions. Furthermore, the physiological link will be developed with pathology as well as pharmacology.


Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g. Experimental Physiology includes:

  1. Neural Control Mechanism: Nerve muscle preparation in frog; Effect of Temperature on muscle and Demonstration of spinal reflexes.
  2. Sensory System: Visual activity, far vision, near vision and Field of vision (Perimetry). Hearing and Vestibualr system.