Coordinated Body Functions

  1. Circulation: Plasma, the Blood Cell, Pressure, flow and resistance, Anatomy, Heartbeat coordination, Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle, The Cardiac output, Measurement of Cardiac Function, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, veins, The Lymphatic system, Baroreceptor Reflexes, Blood Volume and Long term Regulation of Arterial Pressure, Other Cardiovascular Reflexes and Responses, Hemorrhage and Other Causes of Hypotension, the Upright Posture, Exercise, Hypertension, Heart Failure, Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks, Formation of Platelet Plug, Blood coagulation: Clot Formation, Anticlotting systems, Anticlotting Drugs.
  2. Respiration: Organization of the Respiratory System, Ventilation and Lung Mechanics, Exchange of Gases in Alveoli and tissues, Transport of Oxygen in Blood, Transport of Carbon dioxide in Blood, Transport of Hydrogen ions between Tissues and Lungs, Control of Respiration, Hypoxia, Nonrespiratory functions of the Lungs.
  3. The kidneys and Regulation of Water and Inorganic Ions: Renal Functions, Structure of the Kidneys and Urinary System, Basic Renal Process, The Concept of Renal Clearance Micturition, Total Body Balance of sodium and Water Basic Renal Process for sodium and Water, Renal Sodium Regulation, Renal Water regulation, A Summary Example: the response to Sweating, Thirst and Salt Appetite, Potassium Regulation, Effector Sites for Calcium Homeostasis, Hormonal controls, Metabolic Bone Disease, Source of Hydrogen Ion gain or loss, Buffering of Hydrogen Ions in the Body, Integration of Homeostatic Controls, Renal Mechanisms, Classification of Acidosis and Alkalosis, Diuretics, Kidney Disease.
  4. The Digestion and Absorption of Food (Overview): Functions of the Gastrointestinal Organs, Structure of the Gastrointestinal Tract Wall, Digestion and Absorption, Regulation of Gastrointestinal Processes, Pathophysiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract.
  5. Regulation of Organic Metabolism, Growth and Energy Balance: Events of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States, Endocrine and Neural Control of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States, Fuel Homeostasis in Exercise and Stress Diabetes Mellitus, Hypoglycemia as a Cause of Symptoms, Regulation of Plasma Cholesterol, Bone Growth, Environmental Factors, Influencing Growth, Hormonal Influences on Growth, compensatory Growth, Basic Concepts of Energy Expenditure, Regulation of Total Body Energy Stores, Regulation of Body Temperature.
  6. Reproduction: General Principles of Gametogenesis, Anatomy, Spermatogenesis, Transport of Sperm, Hormonal control of Male Reproductive Functions, Ovarian Function, Control of Ovarian Function, Uterine Changes in the Menstrual Cycle, Other Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone, Androgens in Women, Female Sexual Response, Pregnancy, Sex Determination, Sex Differentiation, Puberty, Menopause.
  7. Defense Mechanisms of the Body: Cells Mediating Immune Defenses, Nonspecific Immune Defenses, Specific Immune Defenses, Systemic Manifestations of Infection Factors that Alter the Body’s Resistance to Infection, Harmful Immune Responses, Absorption, Storage Sites, Excretion, Biotransformation, Functions of Cortisol in Stress, Functions of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress, Other Hormones Released During Stress Psychological Stress and Disease.


Special emphases should be given on the normal physiological values and their changes during respective pathological conditions. Furthermore, the physiological link will be developed with pathology as well as pharmacology.


Practicals of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Experimental Physiology includes:

  1. BLOOD: Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb), Determination of ESR, RBC Count, WBC Count, DLC (Differential Leucocyte Count), Bleeding Time, Coagulation Time and Blood groups.
  2. RESPIRATION: Estimation of vital capacity and its relation to posture and standard vital capacity, Determination of Tidal volume and Demonstration of Artificial Respiration.
  3. Cardiovascular System: Recording of Arterial Pulse, Recording of Arterial Blood Pressure and Electro-cardiogram.