The course aims to impart knowledge and understanding of:

  • The concept and status of Zoology in life sciences and the common processes of life through its biochemical and molecular processes.
  • The structure and function of cell organelles and how common animal cell diversified in various tissues, organs and organ systems.
  • Biochemical mechanisms eventually generating energy for animal work.
  • Animals and their relationship with their environment.

Course Contents:


Scope of Zoology:

Introduction; significance and applications of zoology; animal diversity; the scientific method; environment and world resources. The Chemical Basis of Animal Life: Brief introduction to biomolecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Cellular Organization:

Structure of animal cells, cell membrane, cytoplasm and its organelles: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cilia and flagella, centrioles and microtubules, vacuoles;the nucleus: nuclear envelope, chromosomes and nucleolus. Animal tissues: Types:  epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissue; organs and organ systems.


Structure, types; function and factors affecting their activity; cofactors and coenzymes.

Energy Harvesting:

Aerobic and anaerobic respiration: glycolysis, citric acid cycle and electron transport chain; fermentation, the major source of ATP. Reproduction and Development: Types; asexual and sexual, gametogenesis, fertilization, metamorphosis, zygote and early development.

Ecological Concepts:

Ecosystem, types, homeostasis, biomes, food chain, food web, energy flow and thermodynamics; biogeochemical cycles, and limiting factors, populations and communities,  human population growth, pollution, resource depletion and biodiversity.


  • Tests for different carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
  • Note:  Emphasis on the concept that tests materials have been ultimately obtained from living organisms and constituted their body.
  • Study of the prepared slides of epithelial tissue (squamous, cuboidal, columnar), connective tissue (adipose, cartilage, bone, blood), nervous tissue and muscle tissue (skeletal, smooth and cardiac). Note: Prepared microscopic and/or projection slides and/or CD ROM computer projections must be use
  • Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood. Preparation of blood smears.
  • Protein digestion by pepsin.
  • Ecological notes on animals of a few model habitats.
  • Field observation and report writing on animals in their ecosystem (a terrestrial and an aquatic ecosystem study).