The topics will be taught with special reference to their Pharmaceutical applications.

General Microbiology

Historical Introduction, Scope of Microbiology with special reference to Pharmaceutical Sciences. Nomenclature and classification of Micro-organisms


  1. The Bacteria: General and cellular Morphology, structure and function. Classification of Bacteria. Growth curve, growth factors and growth characteristics. Nutrition Requirements and Nutrition factors affecting growth. Culture Media, Bacterial cultures and staining methods.
  2. The Viruses: Introduction, Classification (and detail of at least one species from every group), cultivation and replication.
  3. The Fungi/Yeast/Molds:
  4. The Protozoa:

The Normal Flora

  • Microbiology of air, water and soil (general introduction and normal inhabitants of air, water and soil).
  • Normal flora of Skin, Intestinal tract, Ear, Nose etc


Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Sterilization of Glassware and pharmaceutical products by various methods. Microbiological assays of anti-biotics and vitamins. Preparation of general and selective Media and culturing of microorganisms. Total and viable counts of micro-organism. Morphological and selective biochemical characterization of some specimen. Staining of Bacteria: Gram method, Acid fast, Giemasas staining, Capsule staining, Flagella staining and Spore staining. Microbiological analysis of air, water and soil (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).