Separation And Isolation Of Plant Constituents

Introduction and use of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for the identification of natural products. Description and interpretation of ultraviolet, infrared, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectra and other advance techniques to elucidate the structure of natural products.

Carbohydrates And Related Compounds

Introduction and classification of carbohydrates, sugars as adjuvant in drugs, role of impurities in sugar substances.

  1. Sucrose and Sucrose containing drugs: Sucrose, Dextrose, Liquid glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Xylose, Caramel, Starch, Inulin, Dextrine etc.
  2. Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives: Powdered cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Sodium Carboxy-methyl cellulose.
  3. Gums and Mucilage: Tragacanth, Acacia, Sodium Alginate, Agar, Pectin.


Introduction, Properties, Cassification, Function of alkaloids in plants, Methods of extraction and identification tests.

  1. Pyridine-Piperidine Alkaloids: Areca nut, Lobelia.
  2. Tropane Alkaloids: Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium.
  3. Quinoline Alkaloids:
  4. Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Ipecacuanha, Opium.
  5. Indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Nux vomica, Physostigma, Ergot.
  6. Imidazole alkaloids:
  7. Steroidal alkaloids:

Alkaloidal amines: Ephedra, Colchicum


Introduction, classification, chemistry, extraction, isolation and medicinal uses of:

  1. Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus and White squill.
  2. Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara, Aloe, Rhubarb, Cochineal & Senna.
  3. Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza, Sarsaparilla.
  4. Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry.
  5. Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black mustard.
  6. Lactone glycosides:
  7. Aldehyde glycosides:
  8. Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian, Quassia, Dioscorea

Plant Steroids

Introduction, extraction, isolation, nomenclature, sources and uses of bile acids, plant sterols, steroidal sapogenins, steroid hormones, withanolides and ecdysons.


Introduction, classification, source, active constituents and pharmacological uses of:

  1. Fixed Oils: Castor oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, sun flower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, almond oil, linseed oil, mustard oil, sesame oil and soybean oil.
  2. Fats and Related Compounds: Theobroma oil and Lanolin.
  3. Waxes: Bees wax, carnauba wax, spermaceti and Jojoba oil.


Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Extraction of the active constituents of crude drugs and chemical tests for their identification. Isolation and separation of active constituents of crude drugs by paper and thin layer chromatography.

Also include the following experiments

  • Determination of Iodine value; Saponification value and unsaponifiable matter; ester value; Acid value.
  • Chemical tests for Acacia; Tragacanth; Agar; Starch; Lipids. (castor oil, sesame oil, shark liver oil, bees wax); Gelatin.
  • (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted)