**The Semiconductor Diode: **

Metals, insulators and semiconductors, Conduction in Silicon and Germanium, The forbidden energy gap, n and p type semiconductors, the junction diode, diode voltage-current equation, Zener diodes, light emitting diodes, photodiodes, capacitance effects in the pn junction.

**The Diode as Rectifier and Switch:**

The ideal diode model, the half wave rectifier, the full wave rectifier, the bridge rectifier, measurement of ripple factor in the rectifier circuit, the capacitor filter, the ∏ filter, the ∏-R filter, the voltage doubling rectifier circuit, rectifying AC voltmeters, diode wave clippers, diode clampers.

**Circuit Theory and Analysis: **

Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s Theorem, Norton’s Theorem, Model for circuit, one port and two-port network, Hybrid parameter equivalent circuit, Power in decibels.

**The Junction Transistor as an Amplifier: **

Transistor voltage and current designations, the junction transistors, the volt-ampere curve of a transistor, the current amplification factors, the load line and Q point, the basic transistor amplifiers, the common emitter amplifier, the trans-conductance gm, performance of a CE amplifier, relation between Ai and Av, the CB amplifier, the CC amplifier, comparison of amplifier performance.

**DC Bias for the Transistor: **

Choice of Q point, variation of Q point, fixed transistor bias, the four resistor bias circuit, design of a voltage feedback bias circuit, Common emitter, common collector, common base biasing.

**Field Effect Transistor: **

What is /field effect transistor, JFET: Static characteristics of JFET, Metal oxide semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET of IGFET): enhancement and depletion mode, FET biasing techniques, Common drain, common source and common gate, fixed bias and self-bias configurations, Universal JFET bias curve, Darlington pair.

**Operational Amplifiers: **

The integrated amplifier, the differential amplifier, common mode rejection ratio, the operational amplifier, summing operation, integration operation, comparator, milli-voltmeter.