Course Objectives:

Able the students about the chemistry of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas and their conversion processes to get useful chemical products. Improve tier understanding about alternative fuels to be used in case of non- availability of petroleum based oils

Course Contents:

Chemistry of fossil fuels: Classification of fossil fuels. Origin of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Preliminary treatment of crude oil. Fractionation of crude oil. Properties of petroleum products i.e. CNG, LPG, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuels and lubricating oils. Coal storage and cleaning. Carbonization of coal: Low temperature and high temperature carbonization, Coking and non-coking coals, Separation of tar from coke oven gas, Hydrogen sulfide removal from coke oven gas
Introduction to alternate sources of energy: Biomass as energy resources: Bio gas technology. Alcohols: Alcohols and its uses as alternative fuel. Hydrogen: Hydrogen production, storage, handling and its uses as alternative fuel. Fuel Cells and its application, Solar Energy:  Solar energy collectors. Nuclear fuels: fission and fusion, nuclear reactors and introduction to Hydel energy.

CHEM-381 Lab:

Determination of moisture contents of coal mined in different parts of Pakistan. Determination of Ash contents of coal mined in different parts of Pakistan. Determination of Volatile matter of coal.
Determination of fixed carbon contents of coal.
Determination of hydrogen and nitrogen contents of the coal. Determination of chlorine and oxygen in coal.
Determination of various forms of sulfur in coal.
Determination of specific and API gravity of petroleum fractions. Estimation of carbon residue in petroleum products (Conradson method).
Determination of ash content in petroleum products.
Determination of sulfated ash in lube oil.
Estimation of water, sediments and oil in crude oil by centrifuge method. Determination of cloud and pour point of Lube-oil.
Estimation of asphalt in road samples